Oakland Cemetery’s Early Landscapes: Researching and Re-Landscaping the African American Grounds

As part of Historic Oakland Foundation’s Master Plan, an administrative history timeline was researched, which has provided a written backdrop of clues and inferred explanations to Oakland’s landscape tapestry. A series of short articles will trace changes to some of Oakland’s most important elements that shape our experience of the cemetery today.

by Sara Van Beck

One of the past year’s landscape restoration projects at Oakland has been the southern portion of the African American Grounds. As with all restoration projects, garden history research on the area and its families was conducted to guide the design. Historical observations of Oakland’s trees, shrubs, and flowers were relatively infrequent and then short on the sort of specific detail one would like for landscape restoration. A handful of period photographs provide the basis for the majority of the areas of the cemetery where whites are buried. Unfortunately, photographs of the African American Grounds are not to be had. There are more photographs and newspaper articles addressing Potter’s Field and its indigent burials than records addressing the section where wealthier African Americans paid to be buried. Thus, other historical sources must be used to provide inferences for how families landscaped African American Grounds.

Other historic African American cemeteries provide some general landscape data. Turning to Atlanta’s South-View Cemetery for comparison, exceedingly little appears in the local newspapers. Since its 1886 founding until the early 1900s, South-View appears in only one article in The Constitution. Published in 1895, the newspaper article details a cemetery of strong contrasts. Some areas near South-View’s front gates were well-tended by loving hands; loved ones were commemorated by marble markers, but no mention was made of planted shrubs or flowers. However, according to the article, large areas of the cemetery were quite mournful, suggestive of neglect if not abandonment, ornamented only by weeds and decaying floral arrangements.

Dr. W.E.B. DuBois’ photograph of an unidentified Georgia cemetery.

What the “well cared-for” lots marked by handsome marble may have looked like comes by way of an unidentified Georgia cemetery at the close of the 19th century. W.E.B. Du Bois took the photo for his “American Negro” exhibit at the 1900 Paris Exposition. Through more than 360 photographs, the exhibit showcased the everyday lives of black Georgians at the turn of the century; Oakland resident Thomas Askew was among the photographers whose work was included in “American Negro.”

Dr. DuBois’ photograph reveals a tidy, small cemetery enclosed by a whitewashed wood fence, with understory trees scattered throughout. A few lots are either bordered by low hedges or ornamented by small shrubs, in keeping with the general landscape aesthetic found at smaller cemeteries of the period.

The first guidepost of information for Oakland’s African American families appears in the new Cemetery Commission’s report to the City Council in 1907. Coming at a time when the newly appointed Commission chair was strongly determined to overhaul the cemetery, he was quite pleased to report that the African American “portion of the cemetery was in a most unsightly condition, but it has been greatly improved and now presents a decent appearance to the great gratification of the families, who are taking an interest in the cemetery for the first time, and are expressing a desire to beautify their ground.”

While seemingly late, this coincides with the rise of a financially well-off black middle class in Atlanta. It may simply have taken this long for families to have the wherewithal to spend money on cemetery plants, or for ornamental gardening to become a pastime in the community. The chairman’s statement and this timeframe of the early 1900s then become the starting point for landscape research on how the African American families at Oakland may have landscaped their lots, their aesthetic tastes and plant preferences.

Regarding landscape preferences in Atlanta’s black community in the early 1900s, tidbits peek from the pages of The Constitution, but the real touchstone comes from a study by Atlanta University students led by W.E.B. Du Bois.

A c. 1899 photograph of Bishop Holsey’s house. Courtesy Library of Congress.

As most of Atlanta’s black community was not well-off, vegetable and ornamental gardening was a luxurious pursuit for the few, or at least not on the minds of many. In 1900 it was estimated that 60 percent of Atlanta’s black community resided in structures without a yard. Yet in 1903, an article in The Constitution penned by Oakland resident and physician Henry Rutherford Butler encouraged the community to do just that, garden: “Let us then dig up our gardens and plant them. Plant flowers in our front yards…. I saw Bishop H. M. Turner working in his garden last Wednesday. Bishop L. H. Holsey, on Auburn avenue [sic], has the finest garden in Atlanta, without any exception. He spends much of his time at home in his garden. The example set by these men should inspire many other men who are younger and who have much more time than they.”

In the Library of Congress’ collection is a circa 1899 photograph of Bishop Holsey’s house. Dominating the small front yard are two ornamental circular flower beds with tall plants in the centers. Three years earlier, Dr. Butler had encouraged South-View lot owners to keep their relatives’ graves “clean and green.” It is tempting to speculate that Dr. Butler may have indulged in ornamental gardening along with Bishop Holsey.

A 1908 photo of a vine-encased family home, taken from Dr. W.E.B. DuBois’ photo survey.

Another set of clues come from two “human interest” pieces on Carrie Steele, locally renowned for her work with Atlanta’s black orphans. An 1888 article describes her domicile:

“There’s a pretty little cottage on the corner of Wheat and Calhoun streets. There are vines around the porch, and even in this December weather a few violets and some late chrysanthemums still linger in the neat little garden.”

Vines were a favorite way for southerners to provide cooling shade, as shade trees were rarely planted close to the house. A number of photographs documenting Atlanta’s slum row houses – with not a tree to be seen – show one or two domiciles with vine-engulfed porches. Too, chrysanthemums were becoming wildly popular in Atlanta by this time. A number of the town’s wealthiest were erecting greenhouses to grow their favorite flower in abundance, with the first chrysanthemum flower show held at the Capitol rotunda in 1889.

In 1890, with donations from many in town, Mrs. Steele leased a parcel of land from the city and erected an orphanage. A second article in 1897 focused more on the orphans themselves and their lives under Mrs. Steele’s wing. The piece mentions the children working in the vegetable garden, “while the majority climb the cherry trees after the luscious fruit or hid in the grape vines…”

Details on how those in the community gardened can be gleaned from a sociological study of Atlanta’s African Americans, conducted by the students of Atlanta University in 1907-1908. Published in 1908, The Negro American Family included a strong component on the city’s housing conditions for blacks, from Atlanta’s very poorest to its wealthiest members. As part of the study, the students engaged in a representative sampling survey of 32 residences and in-depth surveying of eight residences, even noting the condition of the front yards. Of the eight houses, one had flowers, a second had flower beds divided by cleanly swept walks, and a third had a rose bush and a peach tree. The survey is accompanied by 32 photographs by W.E.B. DuBois, depicting houses around town and illustrating everything from row house slums to simple cottages to the grandest house in town. While a number of Dr. DuBois’ photographs illustrate a few houses with front yard gardens, there’s no information recorded as to what these gardeners grew.

To infer what gardeners may have grown, an interesting book provides some hints. The Negro School and its Relation to the Community, published in 1915 by the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, is an amazingly comprehensive reference and guide to building and operating a school where no such community resource exists. Among other topics addressed are how to plant ornamental flower beds, landscape designs for the teacher’s residence, use of spring bulbs to line the school walks, and vines for fences and front porches. Hedges were to divide work and play areas on the school grounds and ornament the teacher’s cottage, although the recommended Chinese privet and Macartney rose are some of the most invasive plants in the south today.

1915 photo of the teacher’s cottage.

The ornamental gardening recommendations were simple. The flower bed was to be circular, set in the front lawn, and composed of two varieties. A tall plant was to dominate the bed for summer flowering, such as cannas or oleanders. A lower flower such as lantana was to edge the bed for contrasting color, as it was noted: “Border planting for flowers is becoming quite popular.” Flower beds could similarly be made of just spring bulbs such as tulips, daffodils, and lilies, while “Vincas are among the best bloomers, and can be used for the entire bed or borders.” Winter flower beds could be planted of pansies, petunias, and creeping phlox. For border beds along fences or open lawn, shasta daisies and bananas were an option. Shrubs were to be planted around the edges of the open lawn or as anchor specimen plants to the teacher’s cottage. Suitable varieties included crepe myrtle, wild crab apple, sweet shrub, azalea, hydrangea, calico bush (a type of mountain laurel), roses, and Grancy Gray Beard. Native trees could be dug from nearby forests such as dogwood and wild plum. Granted, the recommended plants lists are tailored for a warmer climate than Atlanta’s, they nevertheless provide further insight as to how the southern African American community may have been guided in ornamental gardening and what a suitable plant palate would be.

One of the last pieces of evidence to be researched was the 1949 aerial photograph series of the City of Atlanta. Digitized by Georgia State University, this high-resolution image captured a number of trees and shrubs in Oakland’s African American Grounds, and hints at other landscape elements. The lack of large tree cover in the southern portion was particularly fortuitous for not obscuring smaller ornamental plantings. Combined with a bulb survey of Oakland conducted in 2003, which found numerous lots with surviving daffodils delineating lot lines and gracing headstones, an informed rough picture of the family-planted landscape as it appeared in 1949 was reached.

Yet time stands still for no gardener. Additional burials have been added since 1949; some trees grew mightily, casting shade; a few died; and many of the bulbs surviving in 2003 continued to dwindle. Armed with newspaper articles, period photographs, reference books, and surviving family plants, an inspired re-envisioning of the southern area of the African American Ground’s landscape has been embarked upon. While the landscape restoration plan draws upon the available direct evidence and inferred guideposts, long-term maintenance needs and current landscape conditions have tempered the plant variety selections.

Carrie Steele Logan’s grave marker today.

Where possible, original hedge lines shown in the 1949 aerial have been re-created. The design motifs suggested in the Tuskegee Institute’s guide have been incorporated along with some of the suggested plants. Other plants used follow from the surviving plants on the African American Grounds (such as daffodils and glossy abelia shrubs), from other areas of the cemetery (such as boxwood and curly ligustrum for hedges), and  from plants described in newspaper articles.

Thus, Carrie Steele’s old-fashioned yard chrysanthemums are scattered about, either as cradle plantings or as borders. Large circles of daffodils are intermixed with daylilies for spring and summer interest, while annuals such as pansies provide spots of winter color. A nearby weeping cherry keeps Ms. Steele company, daffodils fringe walkways and lots, and hydrangeas flank headstones. Vinca minor, often called “cemetery myrtle,” has been introduced in shaded spots to help control erosion as well as enliven what was once open dirt. Thanks to the numerous volunteers and donors who have contributed their financial resources and hard sweat equity, a new, inspired garden spot is being created for Oakland and its African American families. With continued support to expand restoration efforts, the African American Grounds will bloom for years to come.

Sara Van Beck is a member of Historic Oakland Foundation’s gardens team. She is a leading daffodil authority and author of Daffodils in American Gardens: 1733-1940.

As HOF begins hardscape and landscape restoration in the African American Grounds, community engagement and support is critical. You can make a financial contribution to the restoration project in person at Oakland Cemetery’s Visitors Center & Museum Shop, located at the Bell Tower. Or donate online by clicking here. On the online donation page, be sure to select “African American Section” from the designation drop-down menu.

Learn more about the African American Grounds and much more at Oakland’s guided overview tour, “Sights, Symbols, and Stories of Oakland,” offered every Saturday and Sunday at 2 p.m. Throughout February HOF offers free guided tours of the African American Grounds, click here for details.

Volunteer Voices: Getting to Know Oakland Volunteer LaDoris Bias-Davis

Oakland Cemetery relies on the incredible energy, dedication, and generosity of over 200 volunteers. Working in the gardens, giving tours, staffing the Visitors Center & Museum Shop, or giving countless hours at special and private events, Oakland volunteers never fail to amaze with their passion and commitment. Weve asked our volunteers to share their stories of how they became involved at Oakland and their experiences here.

Meet LaDoris Bias-Davis

Tell us a little about yourself:
I am LaDoris Bias-Davis. I’m Mississippi born and bred into a family of 13, so you know I have stories to tell! I’m an educator/trainer-consultant and storyteller/actor by trade. I’ve been telling tales and facilitating workshops across the United States for 15 years. My programs are tailored to schools, libraries, youth groups, early childhood organizations, literacy/reading programs, motivational assemblies, corporations, family reunions and more. From fables to fairy tales, fiction to non-fiction, Bible stories to “bet ya can’t tell just one” stories, the Ezra Jack Keats collection, Gullah tales, African-American and inter-cultural tales and “me and Mississippi” collection of personal stories, I try to engage audiences and provide programs for interactive learning. I have a bachelor of arts in speech and theatre, and a graduate degree in early literacy education. But really I’ve been spinning tales and creating characters since I learned to talk.

How did you get involved in volunteering with Oakland?
Oakland was looking for actors of African-American descent for the Capturing the Spirit of Oakland Halloween Tours about nine or 10 years ago. The intent was to showcase some of the stories in Oakland’s African American section. I was recommended by someone who knew someone already volunteering at Oakland. I came aboard as Carrie Steele-Logan and the rest, as they say, is history.

What do you like most about volunteering at Oakland?
My role at Oakland is to share stories and bring to life the history and lives of some of the amazing residents here. I volunteer at Sunday in the Park, the Juneteenth observance, and at Capturing the Spirit of Oakland Halloween tours, usually in the role of an actress or storyteller. I volunteer at Oakland because I love being involved in learning about the wonderful people buried there and sharing their stories with thousands of people year after year. I love the camaraderie of the staff and fellow volunteers. What I like most is working with fellow volunteers and bringing to life the characters so their stories can be told and their lives and contributions appreciated. It is an amazing place to be a part of!

Volunteer LaDoris Davis portrayed Dr. Beatrice Thompson during Capturing the Spirit of Oakland.

What is your favorite Oakland experience or memory?
My favorite experience is every single night of the Halloween tours and every single character I’ve played. One particular highlight was when I, playing Julia Hayes Palmer, was paired with a male actor playing Dr. Fred Palmer, a white man who invented Palmer’s Cocoa Butter and married Julia, a former slave. We gave the script a lot of drama as we informed the crowd “our marriage caused quite a stir back in our day!” The crowds roared with laughter! Oakland visitors help make the moments memorable and unforgettable.

HOF Volunteer applications have closed for 2018. However, if you would like to be considered for future volunteer opportunities or want to know more about what our volunteers do, please contact Richard Harker, Director of Special Events and Volunteers: rharker@oaklandcemetery.com or 404-688-2107. 

Oakland Cemetery’s free guided tours relay the history of Atlanta’s earliest civil rights leaders

On Martin Luther King Jr. Day and throughout Black History Month, Historic Oakland Foundation (HOF) hosts free guided walking tours of Oakland Cemetery’s African American Grounds, a burial space containing the histories of thousands of Atlanta’s earliest black citizens.

On Monday, Jan. 15 at 1:30 p.m., HOF offers visitors a “behind-the-stones” guided tour of the restoration work happening in the cemetery’s 3.5-acre African American Grounds section. This tour is free and open to the public, and reservations are not required to join.

In 2017 HOF began a large-scale, phased hardscape and landscape restoration of the area, which had not undergone a massive restoration in more than 100 years. During the tour, attendees will learn about some of the people and families whose lots have recently been restored, as well as what projects remain in the African American Grounds.

“On King Day we look forward to welcoming repeat visitors and newcomers alike, and hope that folks will take advantage of this opportunity to learn more about some Oakland residents who contributed to Atlanta’s early civil rights movements,” said David Moore, executive director of HOF.

Before the City of Atlanta ended segregation of public spaces in the 1960s, citizens were racially separated even in death; Oakland Cemetery is the final resting place for over 12,000 African Americans. Notable Atlantans buried in the African American Grounds section include: Thomas Askew, one of the city’s first black professional photographers; Marie Woolfork Taylor, a co-founder of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.; real estate pioneer Antoine Graves, Sr.; and Selena Sloan Butler, who in 1911 founded Atlanta’s first parent-teacher association for black families.

As part of the national MLK Day of Service, Bank of America staffers and students from Georgia Tech will lend HOF’s gardens team a helping hand, with volunteers tackling various landscape projects in the African American Grounds.

For those unable to attend the Jan. 15 tour, throughout February HOF will offer tours of the African American Grounds. Presented in partnership with the City of Atlanta, the hour-long tours will be offered at 1:30 p.m. on Feb. 10, Feb. 13, Feb. 17, and Feb. 22. February’s tours are also free and open to the public, but a reservation is required in advance as space is limited.

Any donations received during these tours will be allocated to the African American Grounds restoration project.

Volunteer Voices: Getting to Know Oakland Volunteer Loran Crabtree

Oakland Cemetery relies on the incredible energy, dedication, and generosity of over two hundred volunteers. Working in the gardens, giving tours, staffing the Visitor Center, or giving countless hours at special and private events, Oakland volunteers never fail to amaze with their passion and commitment. Weve asked some of Oaklands volunteers to share their stories of how they became involved as Oakland volunteers and their experiences here.

Meet Loran Crabtree

Loran serving as a tour guide at Oakland Cemetery.

Tell us a little bit about yourself.
I’m 28 years old and born and raised in the metro Atlanta area (Atlanta and Forsyth County.) I’ve been a police officer for the last six years. My family has been in the City of Atlanta since the 1870s. My great, great, great grandfathers on both sides served in the Civil War. My great uncle was an Atlanta police officer who was killed in the line of duty in 1902.

How did you get involved in volunteering at Oakland?
I was interested in local Atlanta history and a friend of mine mentioned Oakland was hosting a volunteer orientation… and the rest, as they say, is history. I volunteer at Oakland because local Atlanta history is very important to me. Having the Crabtree side of my family live and prosper in Atlanta since the 1870s makes it a special place for me. Volunteering at Oakland ensures that the people buried here won’t be forgotten and neither will their stories. Oakland is also a very relaxing place to me. With the stress of my job and life in general, I need an outlet that is relaxing and volunteering at Oakland does this for me.

What do you do at Oakland?
I’m mainly a tour guide but I work in the Visitors Center & Museum Shop, and I work at the Foundation’s special events. I also independently research Oakland and the cemetery’s residents. I love being around the other volunteers and networking with them. I also enjoy meeting the guests who come to Oakland and conversing with them.

What is your favorite Oakland experience or moment?
This would be a tie between portraying a Confederate soldier for the Capturing the Spirit of Oakland Halloween Tour and meeting some of Captain William A. Fuller’s descendants. At Capturing the Spirit of Oakland in 2015, I read the roll call of Confederate dead. I met Capt. Fuller’s descendants one day when I was working in the Visitors Center. A lady came in and as we started talking, it turned out she was Capt. Fuller’s great, great granddaughter. We discussed the Great Locomotive Chase, and she even described to me remembering when the Fuller family cemetery was dug up and moved to make way for a Shoney’s.

If you are interested in volunteering at Historic Oakland Cemetery, want to be considered for our January 2018 new volunteer orientation, or want to know more about what our volunteers do, please e-mail Richard Harker, Director of Special Events and Volunteers, rharker@oaklandcemetery.com or call 404-688-2107. 

Oakland Cemetery’s Early Landscapes: The Fence and the Wall

By Sara Van Beck

As part of Historic Oakland Foundation’s Master Plan, an administrative history timeline was researched, which has provided a written backdrop of clues and inferred explanations to Oakland’s landscape tapestry. A series of short articles will trace changes to some of Oakland’s most important elements that shape our experience of the cemetery today.

Very old photographs of familiar places are most intriguing to many people, particularly those with an interest in history. Oakland Cemetery is no exception; old photographs illustrate how Oakland grew, how it changed with decades of improvements, and in some cases what has been lost to the vagaries of time. These early images are quite intriguing as to the landscape and gardening at Oakland, helping to inform staff on appropriate plant selections and landscape motifs with restoration projects.

But photographs only go so far, providing disparate visual mileposts to anchor the understanding of Oakland’s changing landscape.

One of Oakland’s most dominant features is its enclosure. The brick and granite perimeter wall sets Oakland apart from its immediate surroundings, and with the passage of time now signals the venerable age of the landscape within. However, in the beginning, the cemetery’s perimeter enclosure was all about providing basic security (and at a cost the City could afford.) For the first 40 years, numerous wood fences protected the cemetery. In a Southern climate, this proved both short-lived and a regular drain on the City’s budget.

Soon after the City purchased the Original Six Acres for the “City Grave Yard” in 1850, expenditures were requested for building a fence. In March 1851, it was “Resolved that the grave yard be enclosed with post and plank fence, panels to be eight feet in length.” However, it seems the fence wasn’t actually constructed until 1855, based on a terse line in the Annual Report made to the Atlanta City Council for the year: “A contract has been made with D. Demorest, Esq., for the building of a substantial fence around the Yard for the sum of $225.”

It only took three years for the fence to decay and require another infusion of funds. In June of 1858, the City Council’s Committee on Cemetery reported, “that after having taken down the old fence on eastern end of the Cemetery they found that about one half of the material is so rotton [sic] that it is unfit for use, and will have to be replaced by new material.”

No surprise, the Civil War took its toll on the fence as it did on the rest of Atlanta. Letters and military reports lament the Federals’ burning of the fence and palings around graves; lesser offenses like grazing their horses; and acts of vandalism and desecration. The Chairman of the Committee on Cemetery pressed for a new fence as early as practicable, to be constructed “with sound oak posts with base or bottom board 12 inches wide and [four] 6 inch boards above also an upright or joint board to each post. Can be put up for $700.” In 1869 a mention is made that the front gate needed a post (perhaps because of rot) but no mention is made alluding to the gate’s appearance.

The early 1870s mark the evolution of Oakland from a small-town graveyard to the municipal cemetery of a rural landscape design we know today. As the newly acquired land was laid out, surveyed and developed, a new fence was in order to replace the dilapidated old one and enclose the new land. Bids were advertised in the local newspapers in June 1871, and in July J.D. Wofford’s bid was accepted at $8.43 per panel. Wofford’s fence was completed in September.

Interestingly, Wofford’s fence doesn’t seem to have run along the side adjacent to the Georgia Railroad tracks. The following spring of 1872, a new fence was requested to be in the same design as Wofford’s, using the sound timber from the old fence “in strengthening the two ends.” This same year, the City opened up Hunter Street (now Martin Luther King Jr. Drive), finally constructing a direct street from the main part of town to the cemetery, thus bypassing the old circuitous route families used to visit the cemetery. In response to the new road, new arched gateways were built at the main Hunter Street and secondary Fair Street entrances. And to christen the new look of the transforming cemetery, it was finally bequeathed a name, “Oakland.” On March 22, 1873, the Atlanta Daily Sun reported that a resolution was adopted “to have the proper name of [the] City Cemetery put on each entrance.”

Image from Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly 1881 (click to enlarge)

Thus, the general configuration of the fence for the next 25 years is set – two primary gates on the perimeter roads (Hunter Street and Fair Street, now Memorial Drive) and a small third gate for north pedestrian and railroad access. The arched “Oakland Cemetery” gates likely were incorporated into early stylized engravings of Oakland and the Confederate Grounds. Two well-known images, one from Illustrated History of Atlanta (1877) and one from Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly (1881), show a simple solid arch set on square pillars. While not completely accurate, the engravings do provide a sense of how Oakland now greeted its visitors.

Six years pass and the wood fence is again in need of repair, and the City earmarked $75 for the job in 1878. However, the fence was still badly decayed in 1880, and by 1882 the repair costs were estimated at $600. The City Council and Board of Aldermen did agree in 1882 to move the north gate to a more accessible convenience location, as the appropriation was only $5. However the Aldermen declined a request to install a small, convenient pedestrian gate on the south fence, deeming it as unnecessary despite its $5 price tag. Mayor Hillyer remarked upon the fence’s sorry state of affairs in his 1885 New Year’s address, acknowledging the cemetery needed a new fence.

The new fence didn’t happen until 1887, but by then it came with a 300-foot rock wall, the impetus for the brick wall we know today. This first rock wall started at the southwest corner of the cemetery (now the corner of Memorial Drive and Oakland Avenue) and extended along Fair Street to the east. The repaired fence was then repainted, so far the only indication that the fence was not just raw wood.

This version of the fence is clearly rendered in the 1892 bird’s eye view of Atlanta, a map of which hangs in the Bell Tower gift shop. The main Hunter Street gate is double-arched, seemingly the more elaborate of the two. The second arched gate on Fair Street is less grand, and a third simple gate is directly behind the Bell Tower. This was reportedly known as Cemetery Crossing. Glimpses of the fence can be caught in the background of a circa 1895 stereoview, looking north near the Governor Brown monument.

A circa 1895 stereoview, looking north near the Governor Brown monument.

A quick inspection of the bird’s eye view map reveals no fence nor wall, but open grass and a meandering creek along the east side of the cemetery. The now iconic granite rock wall, along what was then called South Boulevard street, was constructed in 1892. Financed by the sale of around 70 vacant lots owned by the City, it rendered “that portion of the cemetery more safe and presentable.” Council minutes indicate the ordinance for the project was passed in July 1892, suggesting the map was made prior to the start of construction, and so provides documentation as to Oakland’s changing landscape over its development.

Finally, after decades of fence repairs, the City agreed to and paid for a brick wall. Originally, a rock wall was requested by the Committee on Cemetery in 1894, but it seems brick was deemed more prudent. Proud of the results, the Chairman for the Committee on Cemetery reported in 1896 the cemetery “is now nearly enclosed by a neat and permanent wall, capped with an iron fence. There only remains about 400 feet to be built on the north side, along the Georgia railroad, where a retaining wall is necessary.” The Hunter Street (main) gate was built at the same time for $1,200; Bruce & Morgan Architects designed the gate, while the local firms of Venable & Collins Granite Company (office on Broad Street) provided stonework and Gate City Fence Works on Edgewood Avenue provided the wrought iron fencing. The Hunter Street gate bears a striking resemblance to George Washington’s tomb, constructed in 1831 and doubtless the inspiration for many cemetery gates across the country.

George Washington’s tomb, erected in 1831.

Construction of the brick wall brought a number of changes regarding the secondary gates. The third gate in the wood fence, located directly behind the Sexton’s Office providing access to the train tracks, was moved west to the lowest spot. This made the gate “on grade” to the railroad track bed, obviating the need for steps down to the tracks, and allowed for a drainage system. Happily, the small pedestrian gate deemed unnecessary in 1882 was finally constructed, located at what is now Jewish Hill, halfway between Boulevard and the Fair Street gate. This is almost at the corner of Park Drive, where the old trolleys once turned south to head down to Grant Park. A new, small pedestrian gate was constructed at the northwest corner of the cemetery, close to the MARTA station and designed to provide visitor access for those coming from the north at Young Street across Decatur Street and the railroad tracks. The terra cotta tile coping was installed atop the wall for protection in 1909.

Ivy-covered Fair Street entrance gate

It is not clear when the large Fair Street gate was built, but presumably it was built along with the Hunter Street gate when the brick wall was built in 1896. Its design motif was also popular across the country at the time. A galvanized iron canopy was added in 1910 at a cost of $440, providing shelter for visitors presumably as they waited for the trolley. Most of the gate’s early images show it covered in ivy, a popular romantic motif in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. One rare image of the gate, dating from the middle 20th century, shows the gate fully exposed.

The Hunter Street gate was re-built in 1966 with assistance from the National Park Service as part of their Mission 66 program. Celebrating 50 years of the National Park Service, Mission 66 was tasked with identifying and preserving America’s heritage. For reasons unknown, the gate was not completely rebuilt to its original appearance; two decorative Corinthian inset pieces towards the top of the two main columns were not kept, and were instead replaced with plain brick. It is suspected that the Fair Street gate was disassembled at this time, taken down to the basic columns of today.

A 1902 photo of Oakland’s front gate, taken from Atlanta and Its Builders

The brick wall was restored in 1998 following the original design, but with reinforcing systems, and re-used 30% of the original brick. Barring unforeseen accidents, Oakland’s walls should stand for another 100 years.

Sara Van Beck is a member of Historic Oakland Foundation’s gardens team. She is a leading daffodil authority and author of Daffodils in American Gardens: 1733-1940.

Volunteer Voices: Getting to Know Oakland Volunteers Joan Fountain and Al Stephens

Oakland Cemetery relies on the incredible energy, dedication, and generosity of over two hundred volunteers. Working in the gardens, giving tours, staffing the Visitor Center, or giving countless hours at special and private events, Oakland volunteers never fail to amaze with their passion and commitment. We’ve asked some of Oakland’s volunteers to share their stories of how they became involved as Oakland volunteers and their experiences here.

Meet brother and sister volunteer team Joan Fountain and Al Stephens

Tell us a little bit about yourselves:

From left: Joan Fountain, Al Stephens, and wife Diana.

Al Stephens: My sister Joan and I grew up in Candler Park, living with our older sister, mother and grandparents. My wife Diana and I have two daughters and five grandchildren. We lost our son Daniel in 2007.

Joan Fountain: I have been married to my husband Andy for 45 years. We are blessed with three amazing children, an extraordinary daughter-in-law and four remarkable grandchildren. For the past 35 years I have been a Certified Registered Nurse (RN) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Atlanta Medical Center. I am a certified preceptor for students and new employees, and teach classes for Neonatal Resuscitation and Stabilization.

How did you get involved in volunteering at Oakland?
JF: My big brother Al had been a tour guide at Oakland for several years, and had suggested that I, too, might enjoy doing the same. In 2008, I did just that. We grew up in Candler Park, and Al had biked through Oakland in his youth (long, long ago!) I had only visited once.

AS: I began coming here while growing up and rode my bicycle here. Over the years, I continued visiting, and one day saw a tour being given. I volunteered to do that and have been ever since. I fell in love with Oakland while growing up. I love the artistry of the monuments, the history here and the opportunity to share my interest with others. I give the “Sights, Symbols and Stories” overview tour, “Oakland and the Civil War,” and the “Malts and Vaults of Oakland” beer tours. I also work in the Visitors Center & Museum Shop, and am an actor during Capturing the Spirit of Oakland Halloween Tours, and volunteer at other special events.

Al Stephens in character during Capturing the Spirit of Oakland Halloween Tours

What do you like most about volunteering at Oakland?
JF: How much time do you have for an answer?! History, exquisite statuary and flora, being an ambassador for Oakland to people from all over the world. Our Oakland volunteer family is diverse, but every person in it is friendly and caring. We have grown so much; my “graduating class” of volunteers in 2008 had only about a dozen members. I enjoy myself immensely working in the Visitor’s Center & Museum Shop, at special events, and giving a few tours and learning new facts about Oakland and the residents. Visitors tell about their family members; other volunteers research and share their knowledge; and we learn new material with each new tour. I have accumulated a vast library of books at home on Atlanta and cemeteries. My very first purchases on eBay were volumes one and two of Franklin Garrett’s Atlanta and Environs.

AS: Interacting with those interested in learning about what’s here, being with the good friends who volunteer here, and sharing my common interest with Joan, who in addition to being a wonderful tour guide and volunteer, is one of the finest people I know.

What is your favorite Oakland experience/moment?
AS: Meeting descendants of those who are on the tours. I have met and talked with the Ivy family, related to Hardy and Sarah Todd Ivy and relatives of Dr. Noel D’Alvigny to name a few. The Ivys told me where they thought Hardy is buried, and I was able to give the D’Alvigny descendants information that they didn’t know.

JF: During and after the Capturing the Spirit of Oakland Halloween Tours. Walking in the moonlight in Oakland is sublime!

If you are interested in volunteering at Historic Oakland Cemetery, want to be considered for our January 2018 new volunteer orientation, or want to know more about what our volunteers do, please e-mail Richard Harker, Director of Special Events and Volunteers, rharker@oaklandcemetery.com or call 404-688-2107. 

Oakland Tours in Focus: Happy Birthday, Atlanta!

by Marcy Breffle, Education Coordinator

Atlanta’s Zero-Mile Post marker

On December 29, 1847, Georgia governor George W. Towns approved legislation that reincorporated the town of Atlanta as the city of Atlanta. In 2017 Atlanta’s celebrates is 170th birthday!

In 1837 a marker was placed near present-day Underground Atlanta to mark the Southeastern terminus of the Western and Atlanta Railroad. A settlement sprang up around this end point and was known as Terminus, literally meaning “end of the line.”

As Terminus continued to develop, locals began to contemplate a new name for the settlement. The name Lumpkin was put forth in honor of Wilson Lumpkin, a former Georgia governor and the disbursing agent for the Western and Atlanta Railroad. Lumpkin declined the honor, so instead the residents chose to rename the settlement after his 16-year-old daughter Martha. On December 23, 1843 the settlement was incorporated as the town of Marthasville.

Lucky for us (can you imagine cheering “Go Marthasville Falcons!” at Mercedes-Benz Stadium?), the name Marthasville did not stick. Deemed too provincial, Marthasville was changed in favor of Atlanta. The name was first used by John Edgar Thomson, the chief engineer of the Georgia Railroad, to designate his railroad’s local depot. Some say Atlanta was the shortened version of “Atlantica-Pacifica,” while others argue that the name was yet another tribute to Martha Lumpkin, whose middle name was allegedly Atalanta. The General Assembly officially changed the name on December 26, 1845.

An October 1845 article in the Charleston Courier agrees that Atlanta is a far “more poetic name” than Marthasville.

Acts of the State of Georgia, 1847

Full Title: AN ACT to amend an act entitled an act to incorporate the town of Marthasville, in the county of DeKalb, passed on the twenty-third day of December, eighteen hundred and forty-three; and also to enlarge the boundary of said town, and to incorporate the same under the name of the city of Atlanta; and to change the name of the town of Rome to that of the city of Rome; to provide for the election of a Mayor and City Councilmen and other officers of said cities, and to confer upon them specified powers; and for other purposes herein mentioned.

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Georgia in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That from and after the passage of this act, the town of Atlanta shall be known and called the city of Atlanta, and the authority and jurisdiction of said city shall extend one mile from the State Depot in every direction.

Photo: Governor George W. Towns, Acts of Georgia 1847

Put on your party hats and celebrate Atlanta’s birthday with a visit to Historic Oakland Cemetery! Our general overview tour, “Sights, Symbols, and Stories of Oakland” is offered every Saturday and Sunday at 2:00 p.m. No reservations are required!

Volunteer Voices: Getting to Know Volunteer Jihan Hurse

Oakland Cemetery relies on the incredible energy, dedication, and generosity of over two hundred volunteers. Working in the gardens, giving tours, staffing the Visitor Center, or giving countless hours at special and private events, Oakland volunteers never fail to amaze with their passion and commitment. Weve asked some of Oaklands volunteers to share their stories of how they became involved as Oakland volunteers and their experiences here.

Meet Jihan Hurse

As a volunteer, Jihan Hurse helps bring Oakland’s history to life.

Tell us a little bit about yourself:
I’m a highly-functional introvert. I consider myself to be an early adopter, and I am a huge content connoisseur – I read multiple newspapers, several blogs, and various news websites online daily. I try to read four to six books a month on a broad range of genres. I am fashion-forward, and shoes are my favorite weakness. I love thrift shopping.

I volunteer for Make-A-Wish GA. I am a tour guide at Historic Oakland Cemetery and the CDC Museum. Professionally, I have worked at a federal public health agency for the last 15 years. Before that, I modeled professionally for 10 years. However, I aspire to publish a novel, become a TV writer, start a non-profit for single mothers, start a publishing and production company…just to name a few.

How did you get involved in volunteering at Oakland?
I attended one of the Black History Month tours of the African American Grounds. I recognized many familiar names and wanted to learn the stories behind the names. As an introvert, I wanted to challenge myself, and I thought that volunteering as a tour guide would provide a unique opportunity to strengthen my public speaking skills and be more social.

I volunteer as a weekend tour guide and also work as one of the guides in the African American Grounds. Atlanta is a diverse city in many aspects: racially, culturally, economically. Oakland demonstrates these characteristics of the city through the various stories and backgrounds of its residents. Volunteering allows me to share the rich diversity of the city.

What do you like most about volunteering at Oakland?
I take the definition of the word “guide” literally, and I like to think I guide visitors on a journey; transporting them in time to when our residents were alive. I also love the camaraderie amongst the volunteers and shared passion of history. I least like the hill near the Confederate section in the middle of July or August!

Jihan Hurse leading a tour at Historic Oakland.

What is your favorite Oakland experience/moment?
I don’t have a specific memorable moment at Oakland. There are so many it’s hard to choose just one. I will say I favor those magical moments when an Atlanta native is on a tour and they recognize a name such as “Inman” or “Austell” and they connect the dots that these aren’t just names of areas, cities, streets, et cetera – they were actually people. You can actually see the thought connect and their eyes light up. It reminds me of my first visit and the day I fell in love with Oakland.

HOF Volunteer applications have closed for 2018. However, if you would like to be considered for future volunteer opportunities or want to know more about what our volunteers do, please contact Richard Harker, Director of Special Events and Volunteers: rharker@oaklandcemetery.com or 404-688-2107


Oakland Remembers WWI: Captain Alonzo C. Lampkin

Beginning in April 2017 and through Nov. 11, 2018 – the centennial of the WWI armistice – HOF will recognize the Oakland residents who served in World War I in a new blog series, “Oakland Remembers World War I.”

In the fifth installment of our blog series, “Oakland Remembers World War I,” HOF recognizes Captain Alonzo C. Lampkin (1894-1958).

Alonzo Lampkin was a member of Georgia Tech’s Class of 1915.

Alonzo Church Lampkin, Jr. was born in Atlanta on March 3, 1894, to Alonzo and Minnie Lampkin. Alonzo Sr. was a prominent figure in business and civic life in Atlanta. He was listed as a grocer in the 1900 census, and later worked as a real estate agent. Minnie Wiley Lampkin descended from a family of Atlanta pioneers. Alonzo and his siblings, Ruth and Susie, grew up on Hunnicutt Street in the Sixth Ward before moving to 630 West Peachtree Street.

Alonzo Lampkin was accepted into Georgia Tech in 1911. He joined the Gamma Alpha chapter of Sigma Nu, one of Tech’s oldest fraternities. Two months before Alonzo’s 22nd birthday, his father died following a brief illness brought on by an attack of apoplexy. Alonzo Sr.’s illness was widely reported by the Atlanta Constitution, which also published his obituary. Alonzo continued to support his family following his father’s passing.

In the months following the U.S entry into WWI, Lampkin enlisted in the U.S. Army and was assigned to the 82nd division. Nicknamed the “All American Division,” the men of the 82nd hailed from Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. In September 1917 Lampkin and thousands of other Atlanta recruits were ordered to report for training. Departing soldiers were treated to a barbeque on Hemphill Avenue. The menu included everything from “Brunswick stew to cued lamb, pig, beef plats, and many other edibles.” Following the meal, the troops were transported by Southern Railroad trains to Camp Gordon in Chamblee. Camp Gordon was one of 16 National Army Training Camps established in preparation of the U.S. entry into war. The camp covered 2,400 acres and could hold up to 47,000 troops. The camp was abandoned in 1920, and later became the site of the Peachtree-DeKalb Airport.

WWI-era Motor Transport Corps poster.

Lampkin served in the Motor Transport Corps, which was tasked with supervising all motor vehicles for the military. He quickly moved up the ranks. Lampkin became a lieutenant in April 1918 and was later promoted to captain in October 1918. The 82nd Division began sending troops overseas in April 1918. Prior to his departure, Lampkin married Martha Brown Edmondson, a southern debutante from Anniston, Alabama.

Lampkin’s division joined the St. Mihiel Offensive in mid-September and participated in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in October. Captain Lampkin was stationed in France when the war ended on November 11, 1918. He returned to the states in May 1919 and was honorably discharged on October 13, 1919.

At some point following his return, Captain Lampkin and Martha divorced. In 1925 he remarried Elizabeth Smith in Petersburg, Virginia. The 1940 census shows the couple and three daughters (Barbara, Elizabeth, and Patricia) living in Marietta. Captain Lampkin listed his profession as a traveling furniture salesman. Alonzo C. Lampkin died on March 31, 1958. He was laid to rest in Oakland Cemetery in the Wiley family lot, next to his parents.

Alonzo’s final resting place at Oakland Cemetery.

Shop Oakland: Historic Holiday Finds

As you shop for holiday gifts this year, support Historic Oakland Cemetery and Atlanta’s local crafters. At the Visitors Center & Museum Shop, Oakland keeps it local this holiday season with a selection of merchandise from creatives in Oakland’s neighborhood.

Oakland’s Visitors Center & Museum Shop is open Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., and from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. Here, you’ll find a wide range of holiday gifts fitting every age and interest.

‘Tis the Season-ing
Bring home small-batch, artisan salt blends, sugars, and other dry goods products from Beautiful Briny Sea.

These hand-crafted, small-batch blends are made in Grant Park. In 2011 restauranteur Suzi Sheffield decided to seek new adventures while continuing to pursue her culinary passion. Armed with a boatload of creativity, a love for all things homemade, and a flair for whimsy, Suzi brought Beautiful Briny Sea and its beloved small-batch sea salts to life.

Beautiful Briny Sea offers a variety of exceptional and thoughtfully crafted flavors that are perfect for home chefs, grill masters, and foodies. Flavor blends range from “Magic Unicorn,” a sweet-smoky paprika flavor, to “French Picnic,” infused with Dijon mustard, herbs de Provence and garlic. Prices from $8 per tin (plus tax).

Spice up your holiday with Beautiful Briny Sea

Have a Haunted Holiday
Our Ghost Hunting Kits and Oakland Cemetery postcards from Atlanta-based artist Caleb Morris make a perfect stocking stuffers for anyone interested in the paranormal and Atlanta’s intown neighborhoods. The Ghost Hunting Kit ($19.99, plus tax) is a great interactive gift for those interested in ghostly pursuits. Or gift some whimsical postcards and stickers featuring Oakland Cemetery and Atlanta ($2.99 each, plus tax).

Discover Atlanta’s haunts with this ghost hunting kit!

Pick from a wide range of Atlanta-centric stickers.

Wear Oakland on Your Sleeve  
Represent Oakland Cemetery with Rep Your Hood’s hand silk-screen tee, made with high-quality cotton and inks. The Oakland tee ($24.99, plus tax) is available in a variety of colors.

Rep Your Oakland with Rep Your Hood tees

Luxuriate in Local
For those who like all-natural farm to body products for the skin, we have a selection of Indigo Bath and Body, hailing from Marietta. Indigo Bath & Body products includes soaps and bath bombs, starting at $5.99 (plus tax). The soaps are imbued with fresh ingredients sourced from Indigo’s farm and other local farmers, as well as honey and beeswax raised in local apiaries. You’ll find local ingredients in over 95% of Indigo Bath & Body’s products.

Treat yourself to Indigo Bath & Body products

Deck Your Halls
Find a fantastic selection of ornaments, Christmas books, and Paddywax holiday candles – all priced 20% off, beginning Dec. 16. Historic Oakland Foundation members get an additional 10% off.

Holiday candles, books, and ornaments are on sale beginning Dec. 16.